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VIRGINIA NEW JERSEY PLAN _ KELOMPOK WEEK 4

diposting oleh pradipta-aditya-fisip12 pada 26 March 2014
di GLOBALISASI STRATEGI GANJIL 2013/2014 - 0 komentar

THE PLANS OF VIRGINIA AND NEW JERSEY

After few years being an independent country, United States of America started to think about applying a new governmental system. Because there happened some rebellions such as Shay’s Rebellion demanding for a stronger central government. The first step taken by government was to arrange some meetings which started by deciding several important procedural issues that were not controversial and that significantly shaped how the Convention operated (www.ushistory.org). It was a convention that drew up the new Constitution of the United States. The convention was held in the Pennsylvania State House in Philadelphia in May 25 to September 17, 1787. Of the 74 deputies chosen by the state legislatures, only 55 took part in the proceedings, of these, 39 signed the Constitution. So, they agreed to construc a totaly new national framework.

The assembly set to draw up a new scheme of government. The convention was held; the delegates of the small and big states divided themselves opposing each other. But some of them could not make it on time coming to this event. The first who came to this convention was the delegates from Virginia, one of them was James Madison. He drafted a new plan to revise the Articles of Confederation while waiting for the other delegates. The Virginia Plan was written by James Madison and was presented by Edmund Randolph,  the governor of Virgina in May 29, 1787 on the fourth day of the Constitutional Convention.

The Virginia Plan was made to seperating power from government by using executive, legislative and judicial (Billofrightsinstitute.org, 2014). The Virginia Plan proposed bicameral legislative structure, with representation of each state based on its population or wealth. The people would be governed by two governments - the state and national (federal system). Both houses of the legislature would feature proportional representation. More people a state has, more representative they will have (library.thinkquest.org, 2014), and so the more-populous state will have bigger voting power instead of the smaller states. Virginia is one of the big countries in United States, so the background of weighted voting is indeed coming from the size of the country itself, and also the fact that in that time Virginia was known as one of the most populous country in United States.  

Knowing that, small states’ delegates disagreed to this plan for sure, one of the delegates called William Patterson from New Jersey countered this plan issue with another plan called New Jersey Plan. The weighted voting system is considered as an unfair solution, because such smaller states, like New Jersey, would not have any change to be more in an equal position to the bigger states. Smaller states would be less powered, because of the sheer number of the representatives on the Congress.  This plan proposed unicameral legislature, one representative for each state, which featured equal representation (library.thinkquest.org, 2014). This idea of unification number of representatives would give a more stable and fair results, each state would get the same number of representatives and there would be a balance of power in legislative between the small and large states.

For some reason, Virginia Plan and New Jersey Plan are famously known as the embryo of American Political System. Both Virginia Plan and New Jersey Plan then merged under the Connecticut Compromise, an agreement between small and large states to submit to higher authority, which is United States Constitution. Connecticut Compromise using the core value of Virginia Plan on House of Representatives, which granting each district of states to represent their representatives. Connecticut Compromise also using the core value of New Jersey Plan on Senate, which granting each states to giving two representatives for each states. That compromise was approved July 16, 1787.

The powers of the federal executive and judiciary were enumerated, and the Constitution was itself declared to be the “supreme law of the land.” The convention’s work was approved by a majority of the states the following year. In the end, both Virginia Plan and New Jersey Plan was giving a value of representativeness on American Political System. The value of representatives is shown on how the House of Representatives constructed from 435 members, which is coming from one representative for each district on the states. Bigger states will have more representation on the House of Representatives. But for the equality, the value of representativeness also shown on how the Senate consists from 100 members, 2 representatives allowed for each state. This idea of equality would give a fair position, that smaller states will have the same power on Congress as the bigger states.

References:

Berman, Dr. Dianne. http://homepage.smc.edu/berman_dianne/plan.html [accessed on 25 March 2014]

Bill of Right Institute. Americapedia : New Jersey Plan. http:/library.thinkquest.org/resources/educator-resources/americapedia-constitution/new-jersey-plan/ (accessed on March 24th 2014).

Jonathan Chin & Alan Stern. 1997. Virginia & New Jersey Plans. http://library.thinkquest.org/11572/creation/framing/va_nj_plans.html [accessed on March 23 2014]

U.S. History. Drafting the Constitution. www.ushistory.org/us/15c.asp (accessed on March 24 2014).

Bill of Rights Institute. 2010. Virginia Plan. http://billofrightsinstitute.org/resources/educator-resources/americapedia/americapedia-constitution/virginia-plan/ (acessed on March 23, 2014)

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